Discovering Past

Thakur Bhavani Pratap Singh

Trustee, Purana Durbar House of Archaeological and Archival Material Collection Trust

He is the custodian of purana darbar trust, member of Tehri Garhwal Royal family. As the custodian of Sanatan dharma certain ritual and rights are performed by the Tehri Mahraja family for sacred temples of Badrinath, Kadarnath, and more then 200 Temples in Garhwal. After 12 years Nanda Davi Rajat took place this time he represented the maharaja. Purana darbar was the built by Maharaja Sudarshan in Tehri 1816 AD . Later on the custodian passed to Maharaja Pratap Shah passed the custodian passed to his younger son Kunwar Vichitra Shah and passed to his son.( Cap Thakur Soor Beer Singh Panwar renowned Historian of Garhwal. Puranadarbar trust houses a large collection of artifacts of stone& mettle, Arms & armory ,Epigraphs /ancient manuscripts /photographs/ Miniature Paintings.

More Ten thousand folios of handwritten manuscript and articles of historical interest displaying Garhwali Culture .A number of scholars and historians have benefited and more then 150 P.H.D have been achieved on the research work of the trust. After the submerge of Tehri town in dam .These artifacts have been Capet at Dahradun ,and Chamba Tehri Garhwal. In future a museum and cultural center is to be built near Tehri lake as public display of rich heritage of Garhwal kingdom the Tehri town which is submerged in the dam. Administration & THDC has promised to do so. The trust is regularly conducting workshops, seminars and book releases for the awareness of the rich heritage and culture of Garhwali &Kumauni .In the coming month the trust plans to display the artifacts for public display at Himotsav which is the coming up event of Himalayan states and countries this year uttrakhand, Himachal and Nepal.

Early History

  • Mid-1st millennium B.C.

    First reference to Uttarakhand and her pilgrimage centers appear in the Skanda Purana and Mahabharataas Kedarkhand. As the land of perpetual snow, early Hindus identify Uttarakhandas the abode of gods, Cradel of human race and a holy place.

  • 2nd-1st century B.C.

    Sakas establish colonies in the hills.

  • 1st century A.D.

    Kirats (Tibeto-Burmesepeople) inhabit parts of the hills.

  • 4th-5th century

    Naga dominionsinclude principalities between the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi.

After visiting Prayag he returned to Kannauj where he was given a grand farewell by king Harsha. Traveling through the Khyber Pass of the Hindu Kush, Xuanzang passed through Kashgar, Khotan, and Dunhuang on his way back to China. He arrived in the capital, Chang'an, on the seventh day of the first month of 645, and a great procession celebrated his return. According to his biography, he returned with, "over six hundred Mahayana and Hinayana texts, seven statues of the Buddha and more than a hundred sarira relics. The Kunindas was the first ruling dynasty of Kumaon and reigned from 500 BCE to CE 600. From the 7th to the 11th century, the Katyuri_kings ruled the Kumaon region and built the 900-year-old sun temple of Katarmal, on a hilltop facing east (opposite Almora) Kartikeyapura (modern Baijnath) was the new capital and the Gomati Valley came to be known as the Katyur Valley after the ruling dynasty

Bhotiya (भोटिया)

  • भोटिया,  The Bhotiya speak numerous languages .Kumauni, Garhwali, Tibetan, Sanskrit & Hindi.

  • The Bhotiya identified as Hun Khas Rajput and some are referred as Thakur or Rajvanshi.Tolcha or (Tolia) in Kumaon and Foundari or Fonia in garhwal are the descendents of garhwal royal family of panwar.and the Rotalas of kumaon are the descendents of the chand king.

  • The Bhotiya people are closely related to several other groups and ethnic boundaries are porous.[One group is the Bhutia, the main ethnolinguistic group of the northern part  Uttarakhand Bhotiya of the upper Himalayan valleys of the Kumaon and the Garhwal divisions of Uttarakhand. These include the Shauka tribe of Kumaon, the Tolchha sand the Marchhas of Garhwal.Nepal and the adjaceant reas of India including the Tibetans and Sherpas.

  • The language of the Bhotiya people (Bhoti). It is usually Tibetan.

  • The Bhotiya, recognised by Mongoloid facial features, live in the northern and eastern regions of  Tibet in Uttarakhand.

  • The Bhotiya the Bhut, the Gyakar Khampa of Khimling, Bhidang of Uttarakhand and the Bhutola.

  • Scheduled Tribestatus. In Uttarakhand,the Constitution of India recognizes the Bhotiya.

  • Bhotiya marriages are similar to Hindu weddings. When the bride's palanquin arrives at her husband's house, gods are worshipped and then she is admitted to the house. Rice, silver or gold is put in the hands of bridegroom, which he passes on to the bride. She places them in a winnowing fan, and hands them as a present to the wife of the barber. This ceremony is known as Karj Bharna.

  • The Bhotiyas have distinctive funerary traditions. Young children who die of cholera or snakebite are buried while others are cremated. There is no fixed burial ground, and no ceremonies are performed at the time of burial. The wealthy keep the ashes for lowal to several streams, while others bury them. After cremation, a stalk of kusha (grass) is fixed in the ground near a tank of water and sesamum is poured on it for ten days. This makes it a refuge for the deceased's spirit until the rites are completed.

  • Most Bhotiya practice a combination of Tibetan Buddhism and Hinduism. The word Bhotiya is derived from the word Bhot, the ancient name for "Tibet.) Ancestor worship is prevalent.

  • Buddhist Bhotiyas engage a Lama to perform rites and celebrations.

  • In Uttarakhand, the Bhotiya may acknowledge superstitions, amulets for good luck, curses, ghosts and witchcraft. Believers may appease their divinities with religious chants, rituals, and sacrifices.

  • In Uttarakhand, the Bhotiya may acknowledge superstitions, amulets for good luck, curses, ghosts and witchcraft. Believers may appease their divinities with religious chants, rituals, and sacrifices.

  • The Buddhist Bhotiyas celebrate the Losar festival during the flowering of the apricot trees in autumn. Incense is offered to appease local spirits and deities.

  • In Uttarakhand, particularly Chamoli, Pithoragarh and Uttarkashi, the Bhotiya are nomadic, migratory pastoralists, moving about the border lands between India and Tibet..They also traders in products such as, cereal, wool , salt., merchants , stones,gems and herbs.

  • The Bhotiya are experienced in the use of medicinal plants. The Kumaon &Garhwal Division .

  • A cottage wool industry employs many Bhotiya. Women weave pattu, a coarse woolen serge. Plants are collected to make natural dyes for colouring the wool.

The Rajbar Dyanasty

The Rajbar dynasty of Askot in Pithoragarh was set up in 1279 AD by a branch of the Katyuri Kings, headed by Abhay Pal Deo, who was the grandson of Katyuri king, Brahm Deo. The dynasty ruled the region until it became part of the British Raj through the treaty of Sighauli in 1816. The Doti Kingdom is another strong kingdom of the Katyuri dynasty. They were known as Rainka Maharaj; presently, Doti is a part of Nepal. As per the manuscript found direct descendants of Katyuri kings are residing in 'pali pachau' (Areas around the Ranikhet tehsil of Almora district), Askot in Pithoragarh and in different parts of Nepal i.e. Khati, Manral, Rajwar.

12th Century

Mallas from Dullu inWestern Nepal shatter the Katyuri kingdom. Katyur descendants continue to rulein isolated pockets throughout the Himalaya

Builders of Temples

  • The Katyuri Kings were known for constructing several temples in present-day Uttaranchal and they followed Brahminical practices. Vasu Dev temple at Joshimath, several shelters and small shrines along the route to Badrinath, Lakulesha, Mahishasuramardhini, Navadurga and Nataraja temples at Jageshwar were constructed by Katyuri Kings.[Bhuv Dev (955-970) was follower of Brahminical practices and built several temples at Baijnath and Bageshwar, but the structures are lost and tradition continues. Most of the ancient temples in the present-day Uttarakhand are the result of architectural contribution by Katyuri dynasty. A relatively rare Surya temple, is located at Katarmal, now a remote village near Kosi, which was built by Katarmalla, a lesser known Katyuri ruler and the temple has 44 carved temples around the main temple, but is in a state of neglect after the theft of an important idol.] Katyuri Kings also build a temple known as Manila Devi near sainamanur.

  • The Kingdom of Kuninda (or Kulinda in ancient literature) was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century, located in the modern state of Uttarakhand and southern areas of Himachal in northern India.

Katyuri rulers, is generally determined as below, although there is some ambiguity in respect to exact number of years ruled by each King.

  • Vasu dev -

  • Basantana Dev (850-870 CE)

  • Kharpar Dev (870-880 CE)

  • Abhiraj Dev (880-890 CE)

  • Tribhuvanraj Dev (890-900 CE)

  • Nimbarta Dev (900-915 CE)

  • Istanga (915-930 CE)

  • Lalitasura Dev (930-955 CE)

  • Bhu Dev (955-970 CE)

  • Salonaditya (970-985 CE)

  • Ichchhata Dev (985 -1000 CE)

  • Deshat Dev (1000 -1015 CE)

  • Padmata Dev (1015-1045 CE)

  • Subhiksharaja Dev (1045-1060 CE)

  • Dham Dev

  • Bir Dev (Very short period)

Jubal State

  • The history of Jubbal State goes back to 12th century. Among the 18 thakuries located in the valleys of Sutlej, Pabbar and Giri this thakurrai was of considerable importance. Rulers of Jubbal belong to the Rathore clan. During 12th century The ugar chand The Raja of Sirmoor State, had a summer palace in Soonpur, The modern Hatkoti, which is overlooked by the plateau of Sonnpur, on the right bank of the pabbar river. While he was having pleasant company with his family he had to go back to Sirmaur leaving royal family behind. Due to heavy rainfall river giri got flooded and capital of the state was swept away and the royal family lost its ancestral possessions the Sirmur State forever to a prince of Jaisalmer.

  • The princely state of Jubbal was founded in 1800. It was occupied by Nepal from 1803 to 1815 and by the British from 1832 to 1840. The rulers who belonged to the Rathore clan took the title of Rana. The last ruler Rana Baghat Chandra took the title of Raja in 1918.

  • Jubbal State had an area of 288 square miles and was famous for its dense forests of 'deodar' trees.


Garhwal is the name given to the area in the Northern India which is bound by River Ram Ganga on east, River Tons on West, Mana and Neeti Passes on north and Haridwar on South. Origin of Ganga and Yamuna and holiest of Hindu shrines lie in this area making it a Devbhoomi1 and Tapobhoomi2. In Puranas, it is mentioned as Kedarkhand. The princely state was founded by a Panwar prince Kanakpal c.888. It got its present name c.1500 when King Ajaypal united 52 principalities by conquest. Literally, it means “(Land) Of Forts”3. It is presently a part of Uttarakhand State and corresponds to Garhwal Division. Before 1803, it was a princely state ruled by Panwar royal family whose origins are in Dhara Nagari. 1803 saw the state overrun by Gorkha army and it remained under their domination till 1815 when Britishers occupied it. The new rulers restored scion of royal family to a part of Garhwal, but effectively divided it into three parts:

  • a. Princely state of Garhwal, headquartered in Tehri.

  • b. District Garhwal , headquartered in Srinagar and later Pauri.(Part of Kumaon Division)

  • c. District Dehradun , comprising Dehradun and Haridwar.(Part of Meerut Division)

The only link uniting the three areas is the dialect and the cultural symbols which have origins in distant past. As these symbols are past fading from public memory, writer has tried to review and critique these symbols. Since this effort involves only secular symbols, it has not included the famed “Kholi Ka Ganesh” or “Har Gauri” from Garhwal art.

Flags were present in Indian society long before the written word came into vogue. Dr. U P Thapliyal has presented its evolution from totem symbols of the ancient tribes to war flags and present day flags. In ancient times, rulers had personal flags in addition to State flags. Later flags were of states only which was identified through person of King. Thus the princely states tried to propagate their legitimacy and loyalty in subjects through the symbol of flags. Flags became agency to the paternalistic structure of Kingship in princely states.

1358 A.D.

King Ajay Pal of thePanwar dynasty ascends the throne of Chandpur principality. Originally frompresent day Gujarat, Ajay Pal succeeds in conquering and uniting all 52 Garhs orforts and becomes the first overlord of a united Garhwal.

He transfers his courtto Srinagar, which persists as capital until 1803. After complete unification,Ajay Pal, like Ashoka, develops a distaste for warfare and pursues a spirituallife.

Flag of Garhwal

Known as: Flag of Garhwal State8 or Badrinath ji Ki Pataka or Garudadhwaj.
Usage: Pre 1803 Symbol of Garhwal State; 1803-1949 Symbol of native state of Garhwal, (a.k.a. Tehri Garhwal / Garhwal Raj) Post 1949 Symbol of Royal family and Badrinath Jyu.
Colour Scheme: Two equal stripes of White (top) and Green (bottom) horizontally placed.
Symbol/Device Used: Garuda (Celestial vehicle of Lord Vishnu).
Meaning: White stands for purity, peace, tranquillity with snow as an additional meaning for Himalayan state. Green stands for agriculture, greenery, prosperity and progress. According to Filcher11 (1984), “The colours represent the snow of the Himalaya and the forests of the state. I the centre the crest of the coat of arms is placed. (An Eagle with expanded wings Garuda is the vehicle of Lord Badrinath/ Vishnu with emphasis on Garhwal being God’s own abode.

As Garuda is where Lord Vishnu is, it celebrates association of Garhwal with Lord Vishnu. As Lord Himself has a role sustaining the world, the state of Garhwal is sustained by support of God. It is in a pose with expanded wings which shows readiness and preparation to soar high. Thus it gives a meaning of divinity, majesty and ambitious preparedness with readiness to embark on great undertakings. In fact, following verse was used with special fervour in Garhwal due to the Flag being Garudadhwaj. The verse was used by ruler of princely state himself while bidding farewell to state forces.

1. Kanak Pal 688 699
2. Shyam Pal 699 725
3. Pandu Pal 725 756
4. Abhigat Pal 756 780
5. Saugat Pal 781 800
6. Ratan Pal 800 849
7. Saali Pal 850 857
8. Vidhi Pal 858 877
9. Madan Pal 878 894
10. Bhakti Pal 895 919
11. Jay Chand Pal 920 948
12. Prithvee Pal 949 971
13. Medni Sen Pal 973 995
14. Agasti Pal 995 1014
15. Surati Pal 1015 1036

16. Jay Pal 1037 1055
17. Anant Pal 1056 1072
18. Anand Pal 1072 1083
19. Vibhog Pal 1084 1101
20. Suvayaanu Pal 1102 1115
21. Vikram Pal 1116 1131
22. Vichitr Pal 1131 1140
23. Hans Pal 1141 1152
24. Son Pal 1152 1159
25. Kaadil Pal 1159 1164
26. Kam Dev Pal 1172 1179
27. Sulakshan Dev 1179 1197
28. Lakhan Dev 1197 1220
29. Anand Pal 1220 1241
30. Purv Dev 1241 1260

31. Abhay Dev 1260 1267
32. Jayram Dev 1267 1290
33. Aasal Dev 1290 1299
34. Jagat Pal 1299 1311
35. Jeet Pal 1311 1330
36. Anant Pal II 1330 1358
37. Ajay Pal 1358 1389
38. Kalyan Shah 1389 1398
39. Sundar Pal 1398 1413
40. Hans Dev Pal 1413 1426
41. Vijay Pal 1426 1437
42. Sahaj Pal 1437 1473
43. Baadar Shah 1473 1498
44. Man Shah 1498 1518
45. Shyam Shah 1518 1527

46. Mahipat Shah 1527 1552
47. Prithvi Shah 1552 1614
48. Medni Shah 1614 1660
49. Fateh Shah 1660 1708
50. Upendra Shah 1708 1709
51. Pradeep Shah 1709 1772
52. Lalit Shah 1772 1780
53. Jayakrit Shah 1780 1786
54.Pradyumna Shah1786 1804
55. Sudarshan Shah 1815-59
56. Bhawani Shah 1859 1871
57. Pratap Shah 1871 1886
58. Keerti Shah 1886 1913
59. Narendra Shah 1913 1946
60. Manavendra Shah 1946-49

1500s Mughal emperors sweepthe plains of Hindu resistance. Garhwal retains her independence and adiplomatic presence at the Mughal court. Kumaon pays tribute. In year 1624 Portuguese Jesuit missionary Antonio de Andrade passes through Srinagar on his way to Tibet 1591 Battle of Gwaldam - Garhwal rebuffs Kumaoni invasion 1610 English travelerWilliam Finch visits Garhwal, describing a wealthy and prosperous Himalayan kingdom.

1591-1611 Kumaon invadesGarhwal seven times. King Man Shah repels each incursion, eventually defeatingKing Laxmi Chand of Kumaon and taking his capital

1624 In retaliation forraids by Tibetan bandits, King Mahipat Shah invades Tibet with 12,000 men.Though a courageous and able leader, Mahipat Shah retreats from heavy snowfallin the passes and vigourous Tibetan resistance

1650 King Prithvi Pat Shahgrows old enough to rule. Courage on the battlefield, liberalism, and religioustolerance marks his remarkable reign. He proves particularly friendly to theJesuits who eventually return from their Tibetan mission to establish a churchat Srinagar.

1667 In retaliation forKing Prithvi Pat Shah granting sanctuary to his defeated enemy's son, SuleimanShikoh, Emperor Aurangzeb intrigues to encourage the crown prince to revoltagainst his father. The king discovers the plot and banishes Prince Medni Shahfrom the kingdom. Due to renewed fighting with Kumaon and the threat of invasionby the Mughals, King Prithvi Pat Shah yields Suleiman Shikoh to Aurangzeb.

List of Chand Kings . 700 AD

The Chand dynasty from Rajasthan begins it reign in Champawat. King Som Chand's small kingdomforms the foundation of what later becomes Kumaon.

  • Som Chand 700-721
  • Atm Chand 721-740
  • Purn Chand 740-758
  • Indra Chand 758-778
  • Opened Silk Factories
  • Sansar Chand 778-813
  • Sudha Chand 813-833
  • Hamir Chand 833-856
  • Vina Chand 856-869
  • Lost to Khas Kings
  • Vir Chand 1065-1080
  • Rup Chand 1080-1093
  • Laxmi Chand 1093-1113
  • Dharm Chand 1113-1121
  • Karm Chand 1121-1140
  • Ballal Chand 1140-1149
  • Nami Chand 1149-1170
  • Nar Chand 1170-1177
  • Ratna Chand1450-1488
  • Defeated Bams of Son Defeated Doti again
  • Kirti Chand 1488-1503 annexed Barahmandal, Pali & Faldakot
  • Pratap Chand 1503-1517
  • Tara Chand 1517-1533
  • Manik Chand 1533-1542
  • Kalyan Chand III 1542-1551
  • Purna Chandn 1551-1555

  • Bhishm Chand1555-1560
  • laid foundation stone of Alamnagar lost Barahmandal to Khas Sardar Gajuwathinga
  • Balo Kalyan Chand 1560-1568
  • recaptured Barahmandal moved capital to Alamnagar and renamed it Almora Annexed Mankot & Danpur
  • Rudra Chand 1568-1597
  • Successfully defended Terai from nawab of Kath and Gola founded the city of Rudrapur Annexed Sira
  • Laxmi Chand 1597-1621
  • built Laxmeswar and Bagnath Temple at Almora and Bageshwar respectively. Tried to Invaded Garhwal 7 times without any Success
  • Dilip Chand 1621-1624
  • Vijay Chand 1624-1625
  • Trimal Chand 1625-1638
  • Baz Bahadur Chand 1638-1678
  • Nanaki Chand 1177-1195
  • Ram Chand 1195-1205
  • Bhishm Chand 1205-1226
  • Megh Chand 1226-1233
  • Dhyan Chand 1233-1251
  • Parvat Chand 1251-1261
  • Thor Chand 1261-1275
  • Kalyan Chand II 1275-1296

  • Trilok Chand 1296-1303
  • Conquered Chhakhata Built a fort at Bhimtal
  • Damaru Chand 1303-1321
  • Chand 1321-1344
  • Abhay Chand 1344-1374
  • Garur Gyan Chand 1374-1419
  • Established authority over Bhabar and Terai; later lost them to nawab of Sambhal
  • Udyot Chand 1678-1698
  • Gyan Chand 1698-1708
  • Jagat Chand 1708-1720
  • Devi Chand 1720-1726
  • Ajit Chand 1726-1729
  • Kalyan Chand V 1729-1747
  • Defeated by Rohillas
  • Deep Chand 1747-1777
  • Mohan Chand 1777-1779
  • Defeated by King Lalit Shah of Garhwal
  • Pradyumn Chand 1779-1786
  • Son of king Lalit Shah of Garhwal
  • Mohan Chand 1786-1788
  • Overthrew Pradyumn Shah; Became king for second time
  • Shiv Chand 1788
  • Mahendra Chand 1788-1790

Maharaja Medini Shah

Maharaja Medini Shah ( died 1660) was the son of Maharaja Prithvipati Shah who died at Delhi and won jammu and Kyonthal combined might of Mughals,Sirmaur and Kumaon in 1660 महाराजा मेदनी शाह Sulaiman Shikoh, the son of Dara Shikoh, the Mughal imperial court at Delhi, when he escaped from his uncle Aurangzeb in 1658 and sought refuge from Prithvi Shah of the Garhwal kingdom, which had its capital in Srinagar. Suleman's escape to Garhwal, he compelled the Raja, under threat of war, to surrender Suleman Shikoh.

After one year and seven months' sojourn at Srinagar, where he was lodged m a palace and treated "like a son" by the old Raja, Prithipat Shah (1625-1660), the prince was surrendered to the forces of Aurangzeb under a false pretext. He was sent to the battlefield of Patalidun at the head of an army of Garhwal soldiers. The pretence of fighting against Aurangzeb's forces was contrived by the crafty heir-apparent of Garhwal, Medini Shah (1660-1684). Medini Shah was persona grata at Aurangzeb's court in Delhi. With his Garhwal soldiers he helped Aurangzeb to subdue some of the refractory Rajas of the Punjab Hills.

King Baz BahadurChand

1638 King Baz BahadurChand ascends the Kumaoni throne. At the time, Kumaon is a tributary state ofthe Mughal Empire. The King introduces Muslim court customs to Kumaon. BazBahadur Chand and his successors invade Garhwal frequently. 1640 King Baz Bahadur Shahincites Emperor Shah Jahan's Mughal forces to invade Garhwal. Led by QueenMother Karnavati, the Garhwali defenders crush the numerically superiorexpeditionary forces from the plains. Rather than executing prisoners, she cutsoff the noses of all captured troops. This act earns the Queen mother the title"Nak-katti-Rani", the queen who cuts off noses.

One of most powerful ruler of Chand dynasty was Baz Bahadur (1638–78) AD, who met Shahjahan in Delhi, and in 1655 joined forces with him to attack Garhwal, which was under its king, Pirthvi Shah, and subsequently captured the Terai region including Dehradun, which was hence separated from the Garhwal kingdom. Baz Bahadur extended his territory east to karnali river.In 1672, Baz Bahadur, started a poll tax, and its revenue was sent to Delhi as a tribute. Baz Bahadur also built the Golu Devta Temple, at Ghorakhal, near Bhimtal, after Lord Golu, a general in his army, who died valiantly at war. He also built famous Bhimeshwara Mahadev Temple at Bhimtal. Towards the end of the 17th century, Chand Rajas again attacked Garhwal kingdom, and in 1688, Udyot Chand, erected several temples at Almora, including Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwar and Parbateshwar, to mark his victory over Garhwal and Doti, the Parbateshwar temple was renamed twice, to become the present Nanda Devi temple.[2] Gyan Chand, the king of kumaon ascended the throne in 1698. In 1699 he attacked Garhwal, which was under the king Fateh Shah. He crossed Ramganga river and plundered Sabli, Khatli, and Sainchar.

In 1701, Fateh shah entered in Chaukot (now Syalde region with 3 part, Talla Chaukot (lower), Malla Chaukot (Upper) and Bichla Chaukot (middle)) and Gewar vally (region of Chaukhutiya, Masi and Dwarahat) as reply. The Kumaonis defeated the Garhwalis in the battle of Duduli (near Melchauri in Garhwal). In 1707, the Kumaon forces annexed Juniyagarh in Bichla Chaukot (Syalde), and razed the old fort at Chandpur. Later, Jagat Chand (1708–20), defeated the Raja of Garhwal and pushed him away from Srinagar, and his kingdom was given to a Brahmin. However, a subsequent king of Garhwal, Pradip Shah (1717–72), regained control over Garhwal and retained Doon till 1757, when Rohilla leader, Najib-ud-Daula, established himself there, though he was ousted soon by Pradip Shah.

Chand Kings

The Chand kingdom was established by Som Chand, who arrived from Kannuaj near Allahabad some time in the 10th century and displaced the Katyuri Kings, originally from Katyur valley near Joshimath, who had been ruling the area starting from the 7th century AD. He[continued to call his state Kurmanchal and established its capital in Champawat in Kali Kumaon, called so due to its vicinity to the river Kali. Many temples built in this former capital city during the 11th and 12th centuries exist today, including the Baleshwar and Nagnath temples.

14th-15th century The Chand dynastyrule grows oppressive and despotic. While seeking favour from Emperor MohammedTughluq in Delhi, the Kumaoni kings try pacifying their subjects with acts ofpiety. Nepotism and profligate spending keep people from open revolt. The first capital of Chand rulers, Champawat, in the stronghold popularly known as Kali Kumaon, is now a district headquarters town, and hold many remnants of once powerful Chand reign, including a medieval fort, Baleshwar temple, Nagnath Temple, etc. Other temples of their reign are Golu Devata Temple, at Ghorakhal, near Bhimtal, and Bhimeshwara Mahadev Temple at Bhimtal.

1437 With popular support,King Bharati Chand overthrows his corrupt uncle, King Vikram Chand and restoresthe popularity and fortunes of the Chands.

869-1065 Khas (indigenous)chieftains rebel against the Chand dynasty and succeed in driving the royalcourt to the plains.

1065 Vir Chand returns to Champawat and regains his dynasty's lost kingdom

Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708),born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam,Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh Gurus. His four sons died during his lifetime in Mughal-Sikh wars – two in battle, two executed by the Mughal army.Battle of Bhangani (1688), which states chapter 8 of Gobind Singh's Bicitra Natak, when Fateh Shah, along with Royal Garhwali armi, who attacked his forces without any purpose and took them in his custody but later on released the Guru and Fateh shah became his Good frend and had visited the higher mountain regions of garhwal some mercenary commanders Hayat Khan and Najabat Khan who happened to be in that aria attacked Guru forces.

The Guru's cousin named Sango Shah was killed in the battle, a cousin from Guru Hargobind's daughter. The Guru was with Kripal (his maternal uncle) and a Brahmin named Daya Ram, both of whom he praises as heroes . 

Hemkund Sahib (also spelled Hemkunt), formally known as Gurudwara Sri Hemkund Sahib Ji, is a Sikh place of worship and pilgrimage site in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India. It is devoted to Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), the tenth Sikh Guru, and finds mention in Dasam Granth, a work dictated by Guruji himselfGurudwara Hemkunt in the Himalayas is also regarded as one of the holiest places of the Sikhs. It was there that Sri Guru Gobind Singh the tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs is reported to have meditated in his previous life. In 'Bachitar Natak' the great Guru relates his story in the following words.

With its setting of a glacial lake surrounded by seven mountain peaks, each adorned by a Nishan Sahib on its cliff, iHemkunt is a Sanskrit name derived from Hem ("Snow") and Kund ("bowl"). Dasam Granth says this is the place where Pandu Raja practiced Yoga. In addition, the Dasam Granth says God ordered Sikh Guru Gobind Singh to take birth while he was in

About his own life Guru Gobind Singh writes in his auto-biography as under: -

Ab main apnee katha bakhaano. Tap saadhat iih bidh muhe aano. Hemkunt Parbat hai jahaan, Sapt sring sobhit hai tahaan.

In this field the names of Sant Sohan Singh, Hawaidar Moan Singh, Sant Thandi Singh and Sant Surat Singh are taken with great respect. They dedicated their whole life to locate the exact place in order to construct the Gurdwara Hemkunt Sahib. Deep meditation at the mount of Hemkunt.